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Rationale: Age of Majority, Age of Consent, etc.
#1
Since it has come up elsewhere and other similar topics have been discussed, I wanted to know (1) what you think the age of majority, age of consent, etc. should be and (2) why you believe so. The reason why I put this thread here, rather than elsewhere such as the Government forum, is because I am more interested in the rationale and the philosophical reasons for which people determine these ages.

Currently, in Sandus, the age of majority is 14. That is when individuals receive the right to vote and are considered an adult. However, I am thinking of increasing that age to 16 once our youngest citizen reaches her 16th birthday. The current age, 14 years old, was determined long ago in 2009 and 2010 when it was more important to have it so low — but I do not think that reason is pertinent any longer. The reason for setting 16 as the age of majority in Sandus, too, is that there is historical precedent for setting it at that age. After a Roman man reached his 16th birthday, it would be on the next Liberalia (17 March) when he would dedicate his toga praetexta and bulla (elements of his childhood) to his family Lares, be attended with his male relatives in the Forum Romanum, and would have his name inscribed on the tables of citizens in the Tabularium (public records office). Furthermore, in an increasing number of jurisdictions, 16 year olds are receiving the right to vote in municipal elections at that age; 16 year olds are also able to vote in such places as: Argentina, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina (if employed), Brazil, Cuba, Ecuador, Estonia (local), Germany (state and local), Guernsey, Isle of Man, Jersey, Nicaragua, Scotland, and Switzerland (canton and local).

Furthermore, with regards to the plupart of our citizens, the age of consent is set nearly universally at the age of 16, since Sandus abides by and defers to macronational law when it comes to matters of such gravity. It is set at 16 for Sandum citizens who live in Maryland, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Washington, and Scotland. The exception here is California, where the age of consent is 18. I personally agree with this age of consent and with the provisions of Maryland to allow 14 year olds to consent so long as the partner(s) is/are not more than four years older and not in a position of authority; similar provisions are found in Pennsylvania (13 and 4 years difference), Ohio (13 and 4 years difference), Scotland (de facto, further restrictions, 2 years difference), and Washington (11 with 2 years difference, 12-13 with 3 years difference, 14-15 with 4 years difference). Again, California is the outlier, since it is only permissible to have carnal knowledge under the age of 18 if the partner is a spouse. Thanks to age of consent reform, this is true for both heterosexual and homosexual conduct in many jurisdictions which affect Sandum citizens, except in Maryland where the age of consent applies only to heterosexual conduct and in Ohio where all homosexual conduct is technically still illegal, though that law is unconstitutional since Lawrence v. Texas (2003).

Since Sandus does not have a military, too, there is no age limit on when an individual can join the armed forces.

I can not think of other pertinent ages which are necessary. If any others think of any age-based restrictions, let me know.
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#2
Drinking
Smoking
Driving/Flying/Sailing
Heavy machinery
Explosives
Owning weapons
Leave school
Own land
Marriage
Go to non-juvy prison
Travel alone internationally
Work for minimum wage
Be able to change their name
Get a tattoo/piercings

Can't think of any more at the moment
Simply Communist.
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#3
7 -- Minor monetary transactions: Children should be encouraged to learn the management of their money with pocket money early on.
11 -- Choice of religion: Early adolescence seems the right time to grant the right to independent decision-making regarding philosophical thought. 
13 -- Limited criminal liability, age of consent with those max. 2 years older: Frankly, these are based on my personal assessment of my self-awareness pertaining to the management of these matters when I was at that age.
14 -- Local voting, 6 work hours/day during school vacations, age of consent with those max. 3 years older: 1. encouragement of electoral participation with real effects on a small scale to enable the teaching of democratic values; 2. allows for more free time than a full work week and protects children from exploitation while still enabling meaningful incomes through summer jobs; 3. see age 13.
15, subject to family arbiter review -- Major transactions, relocation and marriage, age of consent with those max. 4 years older or within marriage, making own medical decisions: this one may be somewhat controversial. At earlier points in history, one assumed adult responsibilities at puberty, which I would subjectively call too early. But these days, there are many 15-to-18-year-olds with mature thoughts and intentions simply waiting to be allowed into the 'real world' and true independence from their elders. By 15, most people have developed independent personalities and opinions which should not be quashed by their parents and often lead to conflict. Of course, many are not yet mature enough to handle real-world responsibilities; that is why I would like to institute a form of psychological-judicial review of individuals to determine the appropriate age to be given these adult rights. What do you think of this notion?
16 -- state and national voting: allows youths to influence their future two years earlier than usual
18 -- unconditional age of majority for all the above, full criminal liability, full work day: 18 seems to work all right in most countries
20/21 -- minimum continuation of education (depending on educational attainment and employment arrangements), driver's license: 1. encourages higher education; 2. forces youths to rely on and thus develop support for much-needed public transportation
25 -- Drinking, firearm license: 1. Brain development has essentially ceased by age 25, leaving the brain less vulnerable to long-term addiction. In an imperfect world where smoking is not universally prohibited, this is also minimum smoking age; 2. Much criminal activity occurs before 25 because of the immature, dependent nature of some adolescents and the continued development of executive function faculties and accurate risk assessment. Facilitating crime through allowing the purchase of guns under this age would be irresponsible.
Gabriel N. Pelger
Last Head of Executive of the defunct Usian Republic
Goodbye, everyone!
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#4
Smithville's plan for a lot of things for Rationale
Year 0 - Individual is able to choose their religion
Year 5 - Minor Monetary Transactions.
Year 12 - Limited Criminal Liability, Local Voting, Summer Jobs
Year 14 - Age of Consent (Marriage not Mandatory), National Voting, Marriage with Parental Permission, Drinking Age (At home), Driver's Permit,
Year 16 - Age of Majority, Marriage without Parental Permission, Drinking Age (In Public with no more than .59 Blood Alcohol Content), Full Criminal Liability, Full Work Day (8 Hours a Day, 5 Days a week), Full Driver's License, Ability to own a Business,
Year 18 - Full Drinking Rights, Able to Smoke Tobaccos or Cannabis for Recreational Use, able to own a Firearm (1800s Weapons only)
Year 22 - Full Firearms Rights after extensive Background check (1940s Weapons and Under)

Blood Alcohol Content to be considered Drunk is considered at 0.0795000 (Yes, this Exact Number). In Smithville every citizen would have to atleast Graduate High School, Fullest Education would be priority for civilians.
Yours Truly, Giovanni Tomelleri
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#5
Technically, in the Holy Empire, an age of consent does not exist, since sex is lawful for marriage only (but currently, like laws against pornography, it is basically unenforceable). The privilege of sex is granted upon marriage, and the minimum age for marriage in the Holy Empire is 18.
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#6
Is there no age of majority in the Sanctimonious Empire?
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#7
Presumably the age of adulthood in the Holy Empire is 18. I must check our Holy Constitution to be sure.

I ought to come up with some sort of moniker for Sandus, since you are now calling New Israel "Sanctimonious". Perhaps Pretendus - (i.e., Pretentious/Sandus) would be your moniker.
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#8
(8 Sep 2016, 15:32:53)Emperor Markus II Wrote: Presumably the age of adulthood in the Holy Empire is 18. I must check our Holy Constitution to be sure.

I ought to come up with some sort of moniker for Sandus, since you are now calling New Israel "Sanctimonious". Perhaps Pretendus - (i.e., Pretentious/Sandus) would be your moniker.

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That's not really calling you names, that's just a description.
"For a timeless moment, a reality is experienced that exposes a gleam of the transcendental reality, in which universe and self, sender and receiver, are one." - Albert Hofmann

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Minister of Diplomatic Affairs, Sandus. Find me on skype at live:jt148

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#9
But I am not morally superior to other people.

Archbishop Sheen once said something along the lines of, "You know the worst sins you have committed, but not the worst sins other people have committed." In other words, I cannot assume that I am morally superior to other people, since I do not know whether I am a great sinner than they are.

That does not preclude my religious duty to live a holy life to the best of my ability and with the strengths God has given me. Moreover, it does not preclude my imperial office, that I defend the Christian religion from all heresy and suspicion thereof.
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#10
That actually makes no sense. If you know the greatest sins you have committed, all you need know is that the other person has committed greater sins, you don't need to know what the greatest sin they have committed is. Also, if you don't think you are morally superior, you should maybe reflect that in the way you deal with literally anyone who disagrees with you, because like it or not you always give the impression of being sanctimonious as defined above.
"For a timeless moment, a reality is experienced that exposes a gleam of the transcendental reality, in which universe and self, sender and receiver, are one." - Albert Hofmann

[Image: OAqnJea.png]

Minister of Diplomatic Affairs, Sandus. Find me on skype at live:jt148

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